Quick Reference

This section gives you quick access to key information on ePrescribing, and will help you understand the basics of ePrescribing, including what ePrescribing systems can and can’t do, and answer some of your most pressing questions.

Recent References

General References

  • Cresswell K et al. Investigating and Learning Lessons from Early Experiences of Implementing ePrescribing Systems into NHS Hospitals: A Questionnaire Study. PLoS ONE 8(1): e53369.
  • Shekelle PG et al. The top patient safety strategies that can be encourage for adoption now. Ann Intern Med 2013; 158: 365-368.
  • Radley DC et al. Reduction in medication errors in hospitals due to adoption of computerized provider order entry systems. J Am Med Inform Assoc 2013. doi:10.1136/amiajnl-2012-001241. [Epub ahead of print]
  • Takian A and Cornford T. NHS information: Revolution or evolution? Health Policy and Technology 2012; 1: 193–198.
  • Cresswell K et al. Ten key considerations for the successful implementation and adoption of large-scale health information technology. J Am Med Inform Assoc 2013; 20(e1): e9-e13.
  • Leung AA et al. Relationship between medication event rates and the Leapfrog computerized physician order entry evaluation tool. J Am Med Inform Assoc 2013; 20(e1): e85-e90
  • Cousins D et al. A review of medication incidents reported to the National Reporting and Learning System in England and Wales over 6 years (2005–2010). BJCP 2012: 74(4) 597-604.
  • Lehnbom EC et al. Impact of medication reconciliation and review on clinical outcomes. Annals of Pharmacotherapy 2014; 48(10) 1298-1312.

Clinical Decision Support

  • Bright TJ et al. Effect of Clinical Decision-Support Systems: A Systematic Review. Ann Int Med 2012; 157(1): 29-43.
  • Phansalkar S et al. Drug–drug interactions that should be non-interruptive in order to reduce alert fatigue in electronic health records. J Am Med Inform Assoc 2013;20:3 489-493.
  • Phansalkar S et al. High-priority drug–drug interactions for use in electronic health records. J Am Med Inform Assoc 2012; 19(5): 735-743
  • Thomas SK et al. Developing consensus on hospital prescribing indicators of potential harms amenable to decision support. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2013 Jan 31. doi: 10.1111/bcp.12087. [Epub ahead of print]
  • Mulherin DP et al. National standards for computerized prescriber order entry and clinical decision support: The case of drug interactions. Am J Health-Syst Pharm 2013; 70: 59-64.
  • Griffey RT et al. Guided medication dosing for elderly emergency patients using real-time, computerized decision support. J Am Med Inform Assoc 2012; 19(1): 86-93.

Implementation Issues

  • Abramson EL et al. Physician experiences transitioning between an older versus newer electronic health record for electronic prescribing. IJMI 2012; 81: 539-48.
  • Calloway S. Implementation of a Clinical Decision Support System. Hosp Pharm 2013; 48(3 Suppl 2): S10–S14.
  • Classen DC and Brown J. A Sociotechnical Model for Pharmacy. Hosp Pharm 2013; 48 (3 Suppl 2): S1–S5.
  • Cooley TW et al. Implementation of computerized prescriber order entry in four academic medical centers. Am J Health Syst Pharm 2012; 69: 2166-2173.
  • Amato MG et al. Computerized prescriber order entry-related patient safety reports: analysis of 2522 medication errors. J Am Med Inform Assoc 2016; doi: 10.1093/jamia/ocw125. [Epub ahead of print]
  • Schiff GD et al. Screening for medication errors using an outlier detection system. J Am Med Inform Assoc 2017; doi: 10.1093/jamia/ocw171. [Epub ahead of print]
  • Shemilt K et al. Inpatient prescribing systems used in NHS Acute Trusts across England: a managerial perspective. European Journal of Hospital Pharmacy 2016;
  • Hermann SA. Best-of-Breed versus integrated systems. Am J Health Syst Pharm 2010; 67(17)

System Optimisation

  • Siska MH. Technology and Automation in Hospital Pharmacies: Current and Future States. Hosp Pharm 2013; 48(3 Suppl 2): S6–S9

Unintended Consequences

  • Nanji, Karen C., et al. “Medication-related clinical decision support alert overrides in inpatients.” Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association (2017).
  • van der Veen, Willem, et al. “Association Between Workarounds and Medication Administration Errors in Bar Code-Assisted Medication Administration: Protocol of a Multicenter Study.” JMIR Research Protocols 6.4 (2017).
  • Westbrook JI et al. The safety of electronic prescribing: manifestations, mechanisms, and rates of system-related errors associated with two commercial systems in hospitals. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2013 doi: 10.1136/amiajnl-2013-001745. [Epub ahead of print]
  • Villamañán E  et al. Potential medication errors associated with computer prescriber order entry. Int J Clin Pharm 2013 Apr 11.doi: 0.1007/s11096-013-9771-2.  [Epub ahead of print]
  • Allen AS, Sequist TD.  Pharmacy dispensing of electronically discontinued medications. Ann Intern Med. 2012; 157: 700-705.
  • Hundt AS et al. Conducting an efficient proactive risk assessment prior to CPOE implementation in an intensive care unit. Int J Med Inform. 2013; 82: 25-38.
  • Mozaffar H et al. Exploring the roots of unintended safety threats associated with the introduction of hospital ePrescribing systems and candidate avoidance and/or mitigation strategies: a qualitative study. BMJ Qual Saf. 2017; doi: 10.1136/bmjqs-2016-005879. [Epub ahead of print]

Meaningful Use

  • Marcotte et al. Achieving Meaningful Use of Health Information Technology: A Guide for Physicians to the EHR Incentive Programs. Arch Int Med 2012; 172(9): 731-6.

Paediatric ePMA

  • Lehmann CU et al. Electronic prescribing in pediatrics: toward safer and more effective medication management. Pediatrics 2013;131:824-826.
  • Stultz JS, Nahata MC. Computerized clinical decision support for medication prescribing and utilization in pediatrics. J Am Med Inform Assoc 2012; 19: 942-53.
  • Caldwell NA, Power B. The pros and cons of electronic prescribing for children. Arch Dis Child 2012; 97: 124-8.
  • Abramson EL, Kaushal R. Computerized provider order entry and patient safety. Pediatr Clin North Am 2012; 59: 1247-55.
  • Farrar K. Use of structured paediatric-prescribing screens to reduce the risk of medication errors in the care of children. The British Journal of Healthcare Computing & Information Management 2003; 20(4)

Health Economics / Return on Investment

  • Gilmer TP et al. Cost-Effectiveness of an Electronic Medical Record Based Clinical Decision Support System. Health Services Research 2012 Dec; 47(6) :2137-58.
  • O’Reilly D  et al. The economics of health information technology in medication management: a systematic review of economic evaluations. J Am Med Inform Assoc 2012 May-Jun;19(3):423-38.

Further References

NIHR Programme Grant for Applied Research, Principal Investigator: Professor Aziz Sheikh
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